Category Archives: Environment


Complexities of carbon management

Carbon Financing, a new branch of Environmental discipline, aims at finding the implications to ensure a world having less and rational carbon emission in terms of proportionate payment to those states who have been victimized. Here victimization can include suffering gross environmental calamities and its degradation. This payment might be a legal claim, raised by victim countries against those are tremendously leaving carbon dioxide in the biosphere. Larger territories certainly belch much carbon in the atmosphere. And even, the victim states can’t draw any eye of the carbon emitters because in general, they are economically giant and politically hegemonic. On the other hand, It is one of the complicated computations fixing on which country how much emit CO2 and up to how much it correlates the victimization of countries. Developing and developed countries don’t willing to ratify related treaties facing development dilemma, because industrialization a process that usually rests on the mechanism favoring compulsory carbon emission.

co2Carbon financing is often treated as a trap for soft-economic powers. Big economies offer payment to developing or least developed countries (LDCs) and in returns, they pursue the entitlement of producing Carbon Dioxide of LDCs’ allotment. It is alleged this approach of carbon financing rather expand the disparity in-between the countries in terms of economic growth. Actually, the super powers don’t pay any heed to the matter of carbon reservation and the victim states are nothing to do in this regards negotiating with the big guns.

Scientists and their findings predict the ever warming world is on the way to embrace all unprecedented and strange behavior of the ‘parental’ nature. Record highest and lowest temperatures in summer and winter seasons verify the evidence practically. In terms of environmental justification, the global countries merge into one entity and the peoples turn into one people based on consequential impacts of the environment. So countries are immediately needed to come closer and collaborate each other to save themselves in a sense ‘saving someone is saving myself’. So the investment needs initiating much greener technologies and low carbon producing industrialization among the fastest growing economic tycoons.

The growing carbon markets show a hoping mechanism to reverse reducing tropical forestry by matching buyers and sellers of carbon credits. It is urgently required a financial mechanism to reward the forested territorial states for carbon offsetting. Seemingly this wired speculation can practically ensure two things. One is this reward will inspire the forested states to more-protect environment and credits from buyers to the sellers would be termed as compensations for carbon-producing states crossing their limitation of carbon emission. Another alternative implication can also be considered that the surplus or compensational money from the carbon producing states might be distributed either based on victimization-level of the sates or need-based incentives to the LDCs.

Here in this regards for robust standards, it requires to implement successful field projects, creating financial mechanism along with cost-benefit analysis, and finally, to engage the corporate sector to invest in the forest carbon.

With a view to carbon management, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is very effective method. This CCS process is also termed as carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). It aims to capture large amount of wasted carbon dioxide from fossil fuel power plants and many sources as well. The CCS process generally transports and deposits CO2 to a place from where it can’t spread in the atmosphere like putting beneath the earth shell. Thus it mitigates emission of the fossil fuels that accelerates global warming and oceanic acidification. Carbon has been deposited down the ground for many reasons like injecting into the earth crust for declining oil fields to increase oil recovery process, but large scale underground reservations can be better human endeavor to the carbon issues.

Another method is geo-sequestration or geo-storage involving the injection of carbon dioxide into underground geological formations–like oil fields, gas fields, saline formations, unmineable coal seams, and saline field-filled basalt formation.

Ocean reservation of carbon is also regarded as an alternative approach having no scope under some regulations, because it involves the acidification of the ocean waters.

Finally dicarbonized economy is well-found model in this regards producing minimal output of Greenhouse Gas (GHS) into the environmental biosphere. The most prominent early step in this direction was the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, forced in February 16, 2005. Except USA, many countries were committed to reduce their carbon emission by ratifying the protocol. European continent leads to define and mobilize the decarbonizing policies. The problems, EU is facing right now is that it quickly loses ground to Asia, basically to emerging China and South Korea.

As an invariable truth, the industrialized nations won’t skip themselves in the united world tackling mass exodus towards mega cities and safer countries, even won’t avoid the threat of intra-state and inter-state conflicts of resource scarcity and horrifying disasters.

The writer (Rakibul Hasan) is a former Research Assistant at Bangladesh Institute of Peace and Security Studies (BIPSS) and a Sub-editor at The Bangladesh Today (TBT).


Book on environmental and wildlife issues released

Aligarh:  The Pro-Vice Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University, Brig. (Retd.) S. Ahmad Ali released a book “Gird-o-Pesh” authored by Prof. H. S. A. Yahya of Department of Wild Life Sciences recently.

The book is a compilation of various articles by Prof. Yahya containing nine articles on environmental and avian conservation issues. Eight articles are based on his extensive travel in connection with the various scientific congresses. Four articles are on experiences in his early education and four articles are on various distinguished personalities including Dr. Salim Ali.



Workshop on alternatives to Animal Experimentation

Aligarh:  The Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University organized a National Workshop cum CME on “Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in Medical Science Education” here on Monday. Inaugurating the workshop, Prof. K. C. Sighal, Vice Chancellor, NIMS University, Jaipur said that most of the medical treatments of modern system of medicine, including HIV drugs, insulin, antibiotics, vaccine etc., were made possible by animal testing.

Prof Singhal said that there is a need to ensure that potential benefits of research outweigh suffering to animals, replace animal with alternatives wherever required and refine experimental techniques. He said that need of alternatives has been much hyped by activists and environmentalists but use of alternatives has been made mandatory for teaching, so we have found some way to implement this.

Souviner--PharmocologyProf Shajahan Bano, Dean, Faculty of Medicine said that the workshop will help students to improve their skills in teaching and research with less pain and agony meted out to animals, and increased use of simulators and software. Prof Bano said that the simulators are already being used in Anesthesia and are helpful for training students.

Prof Tariq Mansoor, Principal and CMS, said that all of us love animals and we should observe extreme care to avoid undue pain and harm to them. Prof Mansoor said that the workshop will help raise awareness level among medical professionals.

Dr Chaitanya Kaduri, Science Policy advisor, PETA said that it is our responsibility to protect animals as suggested in the Constitution of India. He said that we should expand the working relationship with teaching faculty to develop software on use of alternatives to animals. Dr Chaitanya congratulated the JN Medical College for initiating the promotion of non-animal methods.

Dr S Ziaur Rahman said that the main objective of organizing the workshop is to provide participants with an opportunity to explore the expanding possibilities of alternatives to animal experimentation, train and instill confidence in them for use of alternatives and encourage them to adopt these alternatives in their teaching. Dr Jameel Ahmad conducted the program.


Eco Park developed in AMU

Aligarh:  The Eco Club of Aligarh Muslim University has planted 40 mango trees and 40 peach trees on the land provided at Sir Syed House complex in order to develop an orchard in AMU.

Zameer-Uddin-Shah-saplingAMU Vice Chancellor, Lt. Gen. (Retd.) Zameer Udddin Shah inaugurated the drive by planting the first sapling. Brigadier (Retd) Syed Ahmad Ali, Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Group Captain (Retd) Shahrukh Shamshad, Registrar, Dr. Jamshed Siddiqui, Proctor, Prof. Arif Inam, Member-in-Charge, Land & Gardens, Dr. Afiffullah Khan, President, Eco Club also planted saplings.

Mr. Arif Md. Yeasin Jwadder, Secretary Eco club said that the land has been developed by the Eco Club in a way that the orchard later provides a recreational space to students and staff members of the University. A flower garden has also been developed by the Club near the orchard. The orchard will serve as an Eco Park in the University.

A Saviour of Humans and Snakes

Virender Sood had his first encounter with a snake in 1961, in a farm in village near Palampurin Himachal Pradesh, when he was 6 years old. When he was crossing through a rice field with his classmates, they saw a snake on the passage. An aged farmer, who was working in the field, politely handled the snake and threw it away. He told boys that if handled carefully, snakes do not harm anyone. That was VirenderSood’s first lesson about handling snakes.

Virender Sood recalls that the first time when he himself handled a snake, was somewhere in 1962, when he went to bring drinking water from a locally-made water tank (बावड़ी). There he saw a snake with a frog held between its jaws that the snake had caughtto eat. Virender used a branch of a tree to gently push the snake out of the water tank, which went away into the forest with its food – the frog.

These first two encounters with snakes in his early childhood removed VirenderSood’s fear of snakes, and hestarted saving snakes, and those humans that encounter snakes.

Virender Sood – a Chemist by profession, is running a medicine shop near Zonal Hospital at Solan in Himachal Pradesh. Before settling down at Solan he had lived in a village near Palampur, then Gagret (district Una) and also at Rohru (district Shimla) of Himachal Pradesh. In order to earn his livelihood he sell medicines that save human lives. Simultaneously, he also devote some time to help people by removing snakes that accidently enter human habitats, and to relocate them to their natural habitats – the forests. Therefore, he acts as a saviour of both humans and snakes.

During the past four decades Virender Sood has utilised his snake-handling talent to help hundreds of people and have also rescued hundreds of snakes injured by scary people. Whenever he catches a snake, he keeps the snake at his home or shop in a transparent jar for one to five days, before releasing it in a forest area away from human habitation. During this one to five days’ period, he not only observes the physical attributes of the snake, but also its behaviour to increase his knowledge about snakes. He also provides first-aid to wounded snakes before relocating them to forest. He told that usually people hit even the non-poisonous snakes with stones or stick etc. as a measure of self-protection.

Whenever he is able to spare time he watches TV programmes about snakes on TV channels such as Discovery Channel, National Geographic and Animal Planet, etc. in order to learn more about snakes. In seventies and eighties, when there were no TV programmes on snakes, he used to read very few books on snakes, which were available in Central State Library of Solan, at that time.

Virender Sood is a well-known social worker of Solan who keeps helping patients of all sorts visiting Solan’sZolan Hospital for treatment. He uses his skills & knowledge as a pharmacist to help and guide patients. He wants to “document” the data about all species of snakes found in Shivalik Hills, so that the record can be utilised by doctors of Himachal Pradesh to stock the “appropriate” antidotes to save people affected by snake-bites.

He also wishes to contribute to wildlife and environment protection by educating masses about non-poisonous snakes, so that people do not harm the non-poisonous snakes.

Uttarakhand Disaster: Can the Nation learn any lessons?

Uttarakhand disaster of June 2013 has thrown up a lot of questions. On vulnerabilities of different regions. On Environmental Governance and how it takes or does not take into account vulnerabilities. How the interventions in the name of development impact the disaster potential of a given area. What role disaster preparedness, warning, forecasting, information dissemination, mitigation and management should and does play in our decision making processes. Do we even have credible disaster management mechanism in place? How does our environment impact assessments, environment appraisal committees and environment ministry consider these issues? Do we have credible cumulative impact assessment, carrying capacity studies at river basin level in a place like Uttarakhand where the state aspires to be Urja Pradesh, egged on by the centre and hydro-power lobby? What space rivers need to flow and what we need to ensure that the beauty (the river) does not become beast (disaster)? What sort of accountability and participatory norms we have? Does our environmental governance institutes have capacity learn from such events? What is our track record in this regard?

These are some of the many questions that arise from the horrific Uttarakhand disaster. South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers & People is one of the many organisations that is active on environmental governance in general on rivers in particular, including in Uttarakhand. Environment Support Group Trust (ESG) is organizing a public talk at Ashirwad, St. Mark’s Road, Bangalore on Thursday, the 22nd of August 2013.

Himanshu Thakkar from SANDRP would be visiting Bangalore and has agreed to meet participants and discuss these issues. Himanshu Thakkar, educated as an engineer from Indian Institute of Technology (Mumbai), is currently coordinator of South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers & People (SANDRP) and editor of magazine “Dams, Rivers & People”. SANDRP is an informal network of organizations and individuals working on issues related with water sector with special focus on issues associated with large dams, mostly in India, but including South Asia regional issues. He has been formerly associated with the work of the World Commission on Dams, Centre for Science and Environment and Save Narmada Movement. Mr. Thakkar believes that trans boundary water issues in South Asia and Central Asia can have lessons for each other, since climate change will affect them all.

People conclave on catastrophe in Kinnaur-Recongpeo

Shimla: Heavy rain, snowfall, and cloud burst on 15-17 June has damaged Kinnaur district in Himachal Pradesh drastically claiming at least 25 lives and thousands of live stock perished. Devastation of apple orchards due to heavy snow in Pooh and other higher reaches, damage of standing crops and agricultural land, destruction to more than 700 houses, schools, more than 300 roads and other private and government buildings have ruined due to this disaster.

Several landslides and massive soil erosion has affected vast areas which has been aggravated due to soil dumped in river bank by hydro projects and roads development. Many houses and even villages have become unsafe to live. Regrettably the plight of more than one lakh people in Kinnaur were overshadowed by the more extensive damage and stranded pilgrims in Uttarakhand.
It is evident fact that gravity of heavy devastation and impact of this catastrophe has frustrated many folds due to unscientific construction and muck disposal by hydro projects, roads and building construction in the region. Heavy vehicular inflow and entry of external population on the name of tourism, damming of River Satluj and ongoing heavy construction of hydro-projects has essentially impacted local climate and aggravated nature of erratic weather.

The Satluj valley is extremely fragile and comes under seismological zone -5 region particularly beyond Tapri. Usually the region comes under Himalayan desert having spars vegetation and never face rain in summer. Himachal is witnessing rain fall even above Recongpeo since last some years due to above humane interferences on the name of development. This year it was not just heavy rain and cloud burst but faced snowfall which causes damage to life and local economy. It is an alarming sign of further catastrophe in this region by rain, flash flood, cloud burst, glacier depletion and earthquakes which will result in increased land slid, soil erosion and spoil habitats and farm land.
This catastrophe takes place in over all western Himalaya form Nepal boarder to Satluj valley. In an assessment by Himachal administration, it is a loss of more than Rs. 2500 crores due to June catastrophe. Government must have declared calamity in Kinaur and Uttarakhand region as national calamity because of contiguous affected region and logic of state boundary should have not been the criteria. National media has also not given due space to Satluj valley devastation.

Affected people in Kinaur are being now badly paid for loss of life, livelihoods, properties, houses, livestock, orchids and agriculture as it has been reported as compare to Uttarakhand where more than threefold compensation will be provided from central government relief fund, PM relief fund and state relief funds. Increased relief is being distributed in Uttarakhand beyond relief manual. People in Uttarakhand are also seeking relief and rehabilitation packages from national and international institution, NGOs and UN organisation where there is no such aid being even considered to Kinaur. People in Kinaur are being agitated and are going to express their resentment in this one day conclave on 17th July 2012 at NGO Hall -Recongpeo .

The People Conclave is being organised by Him Lok Jagriti Manch and Kinaur Sangharsh Samiti. Himalaya Niti Abhiyan and Mine Minral and People along with all peoples movement in this country are also taking part with the people of Kinaur at this time of catastrophe and support their demands.

People demand halt on proposed status for Great Himalayan National Park

Kullu:  The process of declaring Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP) Kullu, as world heritage site under UNSCO has been initiated by previous government and application for the same was mooted without any consultation with local communities.  Second proposal is to create big conservation zone as Bio- Safer Reserve including GHNP, Pin Valley NP, Khir Ganga NP, Tirthan, Sainj, Kanawar and Rupi Bhawa wild sanctuary in to it. Third proposal has been initiated to declare Eco Sensitive Zone under Environment Protection Act-1986 in the same region of GHNP eco zone which include 13 Panchayats with its 160 Villages of Tehsil Banjar, Kullu.

As, it is obvious that all these three proposals were intentionally initiated in same region by Wild Life wing of HP Forest department to promote personal interest of some officials of department and NGOs. Samiti stand for conservation shall also look in to the well being of those humane who live nearby and are depend on these forests and forest land for their livelihood needs. GHNP has been finally notified as national park in 2001 and all forest rights such as grassing, herb collection, NTFP, and TD right has been abolished and Nistar rights such as pilgrimage and path ways  to Tirth, Rakti Sar and many other holy places has been restricted legally.

People lost their rights but received nothing and other way conservation objectives also could not achieved as it has been propagated at that time formation by park authorities. No proper settlement of rights has been carried out. Award of GHNP had promised to provide forest rights in alternate nearby forest which still has not been fulfilled. Only about 350 families could seek compensation in lieu of forest rights and rest of many thousands of families has been denied because one century old Anderson Forest settlement report -1894 dose not mentioned their names in it. Cultural and religious rights were ignored in this award. Hence this award is faulty, incomplete and derogatory.

These new proposals of new type of conservation will further alienate local communities form their traditional forest rights. Forest Rights Act-2006 came into force throughout country w. e. f., from January 2008 except J&K. Previous government of the state has not implemented this act and at the fake end on 27 March 2012 issued a notification for the same for non tribal areas. The communities living nearby the GHNP, Eco Zone and proposed Bio-Safer Reserve is traditional other forest dwellers and FRA applies to them. So it is needed to settle their forest rights first before going to propose new conservation or developmental project or right regime.

Samiti demands that Before proposing GHNP for world heritage site, bio Safer Reserve or Eco Sensitive Zone, the detail information shall be provided to local host communities and public hearing/consultation shall be conducted for the same.  After that matter shall discussed in Garm Sabhas.
Forest Rights Act-2006 shall be implemented throughout state and forest rights be settled as per this law. After the settlement of Forest Rights in the area then Gram Sabhas may accept the agenda for these proposed conservation projects to be decided.

Gram Sabha has legal rights under FRA to conserve and protect forest and wild life. So People managed Great Himalayan National Park and conservation areas shall be established.
Award for the GHNP which was announced in 1999 is faulty, incomplete and derogatory hence this shall be cancelled and forest rights of the communities be reconsidered in core zone of the park and be settled under FRA. Whereas forest rights in wild life sanctuaries and eco zone exists and comes under the proviso of FRA.
They feel that these conservation proposals were intentionally designed so that people of Kullu, Seraj, Kinour and Sapiti may be Denied form their Forest rights under FRA. So We demand enquiry in to this matter and why these three proposals has been proposed simultaneously in this same region.

New driving restrictions in Germany

Berlin: The EU Commission is very much concerned about the pollution levels in the air in major German cities. The Commission has asked the federal government to take immediate measures to prevent pollution in 33 regions.

The German government had asked the Commission to give time until 2015 to solve the problem with the nitrogen oxides. This however will take too long. The regions must act as quickly as possible a spokesperson for EU Environment Commissioner said.

The problem is not alone in Germany. The UK, France and Italy were apparently receiving warning letters from Commissioner in Brussels. The affected regions have to submit plans with concrete measures.

Nitrogen oxides damage respiratory organs of humans. They are also responsible for acid rain, ozone and global warming. There will be restrictions for traffic & driving to prevent pollution.

Where is the sun in Germany?

Berlin: This winter is the darkest winter in Germany. It is the most dismal winter in last 42 years. “This winter is the darkest since 1951,” confirms meteorologist, German Weather Service.

Throughout Germany people are surprised these days, Where is Sun? Many people feel lethargic and depressed, sleep a lot. This is also known as the “winter blues”.  People suffering from winter depression can no longer concentrate.

The UV radiation in sunlight stimulates the production of vitamin D, and strengthens the immune system. Half an hour a day light therapy can be effective but sun is missing these days. The current winter weather is also responsible for the severity of cold and flu wave says expert.

Soon the wait for some sunshine will come to an end. The temperature will rise slowly over the next week experts believe.